It has a mass of 1 The mixing angle at which the components decouple completely can be calculated to be about Sakuraiin as a resonance state between the K 0 and the K 0. However, we instead observe that it decays most frequently into 2 kaons.
It has numerous detectors, including the KLOE detector which was in operation at the beginning of its operation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 17 Feb Quark Model" PDF. Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL Bibcode : PhRvL. Retrieved 6 May Introduction to elementary particles 2nd rev. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.
Okubo, Phys. Iizuka, Prog. Particles in physics. Up quark antiquark Down quark antiquark Charm quark antiquark Strange quark antiquark Top quark antiquark Bottom quark antiquark. Photon Gluon W and Z bosons. Higgs boson.
Faddeev—Popov ghosts. Gluino Gravitino Photino. Tetraquark Pentaquark. Hexaquark Heptaquark Skyrmion. Glueball Theta meson T meson. Mesonic molecule Pomeron Diquark R-hadron. Baryons Mesons Particles Quasiparticles Timeline of particle discoveries.The charged kaons are mesons which have a quark composition of up-antistrange for the positive kaon and antiup-strange for the negative kaon. They decay in about 10 -8 seconds by the processes:.
Decay times in this range indicate decay by the weak interaction. None of the decay products has a strange quark, so this decay violates conservation of strangeness and cannot proceed by the strong interaction. Describing the neutral kaons is much more complex. There are two versions of this particle with the same mass but different decay lifetimes! One is called K-zero-short The other is called K-zero-long.
These two particles are considered to be combinations of down-antistrange and antidown-strange quarks. These particles decay into pions by. The quark mixing which leads to these combinations involves the exchange of two W bosons.
The neutral kaons are important historically for their part in advancing our understanding of quark processes. The particles were identical in mass, and the only thing which apparently differentiated them was their decay processes and the fact that the two different sets of decay products had different parity. Particle decays by the strong or electromagnetic interactions had been observed to conserve parity in their decays.
Theoretical physicists T. Lee and C. Yang proposed in that parity need not be conserved in weak interaction decays. In Chien-Shiung Wu showed this violation of parity conservation in the beta decay of cobalt.
Even with the violation of parity, it was thought that the combination of charge conjugation and parity would leave the system invariant CP invariance. An experiment by Cronin and Fitch in showed that there was a small CP violation in the kaon decay, so the kaon has played a central role in the discussions of these symmetries since that time.
When Rochester and Butler discovered the short-lived version of the neutral kaon inthey did so by observing a characteristic "V" pattern in a cloud chamber. The decay they saw was. The neutral kaon did not leave a track in the cloud chamber, so the "V" track of pions revealed its presence upon decay. Kaons Particle. Index Particle concepts Reference Rohlf Ch.This article contains a list of mesonsunstable subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark.
They are part of the hadron particle family — particles made of quarks. The other members of the hadron family are the baryons — subatomic particles composed of three quarks. The main difference between mesons and baryons is that mesons have integer spin thus are bosons while baryons are fermions half-integer spin. Because mesons are bosonsthe Pauli exclusion principle does not apply to them. Because of this, they can act as force mediating particles on short distances, and thus play a part in processes such as the nuclear interaction.
Since mesons are composed of quarks, they participate in both the weak and strong interactions. Mesons with net electric charge also participate in the electromagnetic interaction. They are classified according to their quark content, total angular momentumparityand various other properties such as C-parity and G-parity. While no meson is stable, those of lower mass are nonetheless more stable than the most massive mesons, and are easier to observe and study in particle accelerators or in cosmic ray experiments.
They are also typically less massive than baryons, meaning that they are more easily produced in experiments, and will exhibit higher-energy phenomena sooner than baryons would. Each meson has a corresponding antiparticle antimeson where quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks and vice versa. Although tetraquarks with two quarks and two antiquarks can be considered mesons they are not listed here. Because this table was initially derived from published results and many of those results were preliminary, as many as 64 of the mesons in the following table may not exist or have the wrong mass or quantum numbers.
The letter "f" in the name of a meson denotes that it is a scalar meson as opposed to a pseudo-scalar mesonand the letter "a" in the name of a meson denotes that it is an axial-vector meson as opposed to an ordinary vector meson a.
A complete set of meson naming conventions is set forth in a review article for the Particle Data Group which also contains a table mapping pre common names to the new Particle Data Group standard naming conventions for XYZ mesons.
Values in red have not been firmly established by experiments, but are predicted by the quark model and are consistent with the measurements. However, it is known that a difference between the masses of the K 0 L and K 0 S on the order of 2. Makeup is missing small CP—violating term see notes on neutral kaons below. See the given reference for detail.
Strange B meson
There are two complications with neutral kaons : . Note that these issues also exist in principle for other neutral flavored mesons; however, the weak eigenstates are considered separate particles only for kaons because of their dramatically different lifetimes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aubert et al. Augustin et al. Herb et al. Olive et al. D 91, doi: Tanabashi et al. Particle Data GroupPhys. This controversy has also been fed by the strong indications that it is not an ordinary quark—antiquark meson.
Patrignani et al. Particle Data GroupChin. Cronin Pelaez Physics Reports. Olive; et al.The combination of a bottom antiquark and a top quark is not thought to be possible because of the top quark's short lifetime.
The combination of a bottom antiquark and a bottom quark is not a B meson, but rather bottomonium which is something else entirely. The neutral B mesons, B 0 and B 0 sspontaneously transform into their own antiparticles and back. This phenomenon is called flavor oscillation. The existence of neutral B meson oscillations is a fundamental prediction of the Standard Model of particle physics. It has been measured in the B 0 — B 0 system to be about 0.
On 25 SeptemberFermilab announced that they had claimed discovery of previously-only-theorized B s meson oscillation. Surprisingly, the bizarre behavior of the B s pronounced "B sub s" mesons is actually predicted by the Standard Model of fundamental particles and forces.
The discovery of this oscillatory behavior is thus another reinforcement of the Standard Model's durability CDF physicists have previously measured the rate of the matter-antimatter transitions for the B s meson, which consists of the heavy bottom quark bound by the strong nuclear interaction to a strange antiquark. Ronald Kotulak, writing for the Chicago Tribunecalled the particle "bizarre" and stated that the meson "may open the door to a new era of physics" with its proven interactions with the "spooky realm of antimatter".
B-mesons are an important probe for exploring quantum chromodynamics. Measuring these rare branching fractions sets limits on new particles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: B — B oscillation. CDF Collaboration Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL. D0 Collaboration Retrieved 8 December Deseret News. Archived from the original on 29 November The New York Times. Retrieved 26 December Ars Technica.
Bibcode : Natur. Physical Review D. Bibcode : PhRvD. Bibcode : PhRvL. Particles in physics. Up quark antiquark Down quark antiquark Charm quark antiquark Strange quark antiquark Top quark antiquark Bottom quark antiquark. Photon Gluon W and Z bosons. Higgs boson.
Faddeev—Popov ghosts. Gluino Gravitino Photino.The B s meson is a meson composed of a bottom antiquark and a strange quark. Its antiparticle is the B s mesoncomposed of a bottom quark and a strange antiquark.
On 25 SeptemberFermilab announced that they had claimed discovery of previously-only-theorized B s meson oscillation. This first major discovery of Run 2 continues the tradition of particle physics discoveries at Fermilab, where the bottom and top quarks were discovered. The discovery of this oscillatory behavior is thus another reinforcement of the Standard Model's durability Ronald Kotulak, writing for the Chicago Tribunecalled the particle "bizarre" and stated that the meson "may open the door to a new era of physics" with its proven interactions with the "spooky realm of antimatter".
Better understanding of the meson is one of the main objectives of the LHCb experiment conducted at the Large Hadron Collider. The rare decays of the B s meson are an important test of the standard model. Any variation from this rate would indicate possible physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Abulencia et al. CDF Collaboration Physical Review Letters.
Bibcode : PhRvL. It could be It is!!! Retrieved 8 December Kotulak 26 September Deseret News. Physics World. June We had a wonderful time. I would go again in a heartbeat. I felt safe and knew I was expected at certain locations at certain times, so I could move at my own pace in between.
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List of mesons
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